Waves can be combined
together in such a manner as to cause either constructive or
One dimensional waves
reflecting from boundaries can be decomposed into two component waves.
The phase of the reflected wave depends on the kind of boundary.
Three dimensional waves reflecting from boundaries create more complicated
When waves travel into a medium with a
different wave speed they are refracted and travel in a different
direction. This change of direction can be found from Snells
Diffraction involves the bending of
waves as they pass through narrow openings or around corners.
Patterns of constructive and destructive
interference are produced when two sources (or more) generate waves
that combine together in such a manner as to cause either constructive
or destructive effects.
Sound sources moving
towards an observer are perceived as having a higher frequency, and